Buchanan has three elementary schools, one middle school, and one high school. The middle school, completed in 1974, consists of grades 6, 7, and 8. The high school, newly renovated in 1993-94, has had continuous North Central accreditation since 1924. The Buchanan School District includes all the City of Buchanan, and parts of Buchanan, Niles, Bertrand and Oronoko Townships. Buchanan schools are participants in the State of Michigan Schools of Choice program.

Institutions of higher learning are within easy driving distances of the city. The University of Notre Dame, St. Mary’s College, Bethel College and Indiana University are located around South Bend, Indiana. Andrews University is located in Berrien Springs, Michigan, just 13 miles to the north. Lake Michigan College is located in Benton Harbor, 22 miles north, with an additional south county campus opened in 1998 at Bertrand Crossing, a new business park located at US-31 and US-12. Southwestern Michigan College is located in Dowagiac, 20 miles away, and has expanded their Niles Campus, just minutes away on US-12.